Female genital mutilation
Typically carried out by a traditional circumciser using a blade, FGM is conducted from days after birth to puberty and beyond. In half the countries for which national figures are available, most girls are cut before the age of five.
Procedures differ according to the country or ethnic group. They include removal of the clitoral hood and clitoral glans; removal of the inner labia; and removal of the inner and outer labia and closure of the vulva. In this last procedure (known as infibulation), a small hole is left for the passage of urine and menstrual fluid; the vagina is opened for intercourse and opened further for childbirth.
It is usually initiated and carried out by women, who see it as a source of honour, and who fear that failing to have their daughters and granddaughters cut will expose the girls to social exclusion.
The health effects depend on the procedure; they can include recurrent infections, difficulty urinating and passing menstrual flow, chronic pain, the development of cysts, an inability to get pregnant, complications during childbirth, and fatal bleeding.There are no known health benefits.
There have been international efforts since the 1970s to persuade practitioners to abandon FGM. As a result it has been outlawed or restricted in most of the countries in which it occurs, although the laws are poorly enforced. The opposition to the practice is not without its critics, particularly among anthropologists, who have raised difficult questions about cultural relativism and the universality of human rights.
The procedures are generally performed by a traditional circumciser (cutter or exciseuse) in the girls’ homes, with or without anaesthesia. The cutter is usually an older woman, but in communities where the male barber has assumed the role of health worker he will perform FGM too.
When traditional cutters are involved, non-sterile devices are likely to be used, including knives, razors, scissors, glass, sharpened rocks and fingernails. According to a nurse in Uganda, quoted in 2007 in The Lancet, a cutter would use one knife on up to 30 girls at a time.
Normally, circumcisions are usually for males but the system of females being circumcised or whatever they call it is quite unacceptable. Throughout my research and findings about this so called FGM; majority of people opposed such act and therefore ban it from continues existence in their countries.
Through my findings too as recorded above. It was clearly recorded that it has “No Health Benefits” no matter the fact of some excuses applied before indulging in such act, it is called the violation of human rights because some victims doesn’t support it, while some women ran away with their daughters in other to avoid them being circumcised or FGM.